PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF ITS REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF MELIA AZEDARACH L.
Department of Chemistry, College of Life Sciences, Cancer Hospital &Research Institute, Gwalior M. P. India.
Melia azedarach L., a deciduous tree of moderate size, grown throughout warm countries, possesses various uses in our day-to-day life. The extract of leaves in different solvent systems (ethanol, hexane, water) when applied to mosquito repellent. Melia azedarach L., a close relative of neem, from the family Meliaceae which occurs in India and other tropical and subtropical countries, contains chemical constituents which make it a candidate in pest control. It has been reported to possess antimicrobial, insecticidal and nematicidal properties. It is also known for its antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antimycotic, antiulcer, spermicidal and antifertility activity. It has been reported that all the species of Melia. A study was undertaken of the phyto chemical Screening and repellent activities of melia (Melia azedarach L.) (Meliaceae) leaves. The phytochemical screening was carried on the leaves extracts of Melia azedarach, revealed the presence of some active ingredients such as Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Phenols, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. Control of mosquito is required, because many species of mosquitoes are vectors of malaria filariasis, many arboviral diseases, and also simply because they constitute an intolerable biting nuisance. In a worldwide consideration, malaria has been said to be the most epidemic disease. Thus, the effect of vector borne diseases is a major threat to human survival on earth. We have tested the repellency of extracted from Melia azedarach L. in laboratory condition application of extracts to the upper surface of the human forearms at the rates between 0.08 to 3.33 mg / cm2 of skin. The MLAE gave 26.6 to 236 minutes protection time at dose levels of 0.16 to 1.66 mg/cm2. MLEE showed 10 to 225 minutes protection at same dose levels but MLHE did not show protection time at dose levels of 0.16 but repellency presented at dose levels of 0.33 to 1.66 mg/cm2 gave protection time 10 to 155 minutes. The study provides evidence for the potential of these extracts in developing new repellents against mosquitoes. Extraction of the bioactive plant constituents has always been a challenging task for the researchers. The result of the present study showed that the ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach contains highest amount of phenolic compounds. Natural plant products are more desirable as they are safer to non-target organisms, less persistent in the environment. Thus its use could be popularized as mosquito repellent. This will reduce the chemical burden on the environment.